E-ISSN 2577-5669
 

Original Research 


Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria

Olubunmi Olayemi, Peters Oladosu, Ayuba Samali, David Onogwu, Ibrahim Ijele, Olobayo Kunle.

Abstract
Aim: To evaluate the microbiological quality and toxicity potential of commonly consumed oral herbal liquid preparations (Agbo) in some areas of Abuja, Nigeria.
Methods: Herbal liquid preparations (Agbo) were collected from different locations of the Municipal Area of Abuja, Nigeria. Samples were analyzed for elemental content using Flame method of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). Microbiological quality assessment was determined by suitability and sterility testing and the contaminants were characterized to genera level. A number of the samples (20 %) were subjected to in vitro hemolysis testing using mammalian (goat) blood.
Results: Minerals like Chromium (Cr) and Manganese (Mn) were found to be absent, while Calcium (Ca), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were detected at variable concentrations. Some samples (11 %) contained Lead (Pb) above WHO permissible limit. Samples (60 %) were found to be contaminated with Bacillus, Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Proteus in addition, Microsporum, Rhizopus, Aspergillus and Yeast were also found. In vitro hemolysis showed that 50 % of the samples had hemolysis values above 50 % and one (1) of the samples had a considerably high value (> 100 %) revealing the substantial extent of red blood cell lysis due to these Agbo preparations.
Conclusion: This study is a pointer to the potential harm that consumption of Agbo can cause especially because it is purported to be safe and regularly consumed in liberal amounts.

Key words: Agbo; Herbal formulations; hemolysis; microbial quality; mineral content; toxicity


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Olayemi O, Oladosu P, Samali A, Onogwu D, Ijele I, Kunle O. Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria. J Complement Med Res. 2021; 12(1): 162-172. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2021.12.01.04


Web Style

Olayemi O, Oladosu P, Samali A, Onogwu D, Ijele I, Kunle O. Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria. http://www.jocmr.com/?mno=120107 [Access: October 08, 2021]. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2021.12.01.04


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Olayemi O, Oladosu P, Samali A, Onogwu D, Ijele I, Kunle O. Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria. J Complement Med Res. 2021; 12(1): 162-172. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2021.12.01.04



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Olayemi O, Oladosu P, Samali A, Onogwu D, Ijele I, Kunle O. Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria. J Complement Med Res. (2021), [cited October 08, 2021]; 12(1): 162-172. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2021.12.01.04



Harvard Style

Olayemi, O., Oladosu, . P., Samali, . A., Onogwu, . D., Ijele, . I. & Kunle, . O. (2021) Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria. J Complement Med Res, 12 (1), 162-172. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2021.12.01.04



Turabian Style

Olayemi, Olubunmi, Peters Oladosu, Ayuba Samali, David Onogwu, Ibrahim Ijele, and Olobayo Kunle. 2021. Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Complementary Medicine Research, 12 (1), 162-172. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2021.12.01.04



Chicago Style

Olayemi, Olubunmi, Peters Oladosu, Ayuba Samali, David Onogwu, Ibrahim Ijele, and Olobayo Kunle. "Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria." Journal of Complementary Medicine Research 12 (2021), 162-172. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2021.12.01.04



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Olayemi, Olubunmi, Peters Oladosu, Ayuba Samali, David Onogwu, Ibrahim Ijele, and Olobayo Kunle. "Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria." Journal of Complementary Medicine Research 12.1 (2021), 162-172. Print. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2021.12.01.04



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Olayemi, O., Oladosu, . P., Samali, . A., Onogwu, . D., Ijele, . I. & Kunle, . O. (2021) Quality and Toxicity Assessment of some Oral Liquid Herbal Formulations (Agbo) consumed in Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Complementary Medicine Research, 12 (1), 162-172. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2021.12.01.04